Human papillomavirus infections in children. Curr Opin Pediatr. Transformation of plantar verruca into squamous cell carcinoma. J Foot Surg.
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Plantar verrucous carcinoma following transmetatarsal amputation and renal transplantation. Ann Plast Surg. Transformation of common warts into squamous cell carcinoma on sun-exposed areas in an immunosuppressed patient. Tender periungual nodules. Myrmecia deep palmoplantar warts.
Arch Dermatol. Childhood warts: an update. Office therapy for human papillomavirus infection in nongenital sites. Dermatol Clin. British Association of Dermatologists' guidelines for the management of cutaneous warts Br J Dermatol. Topical treatments for cutaneous warts. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts verrucae : a randomised controlled trial. Successful treatment of topical photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid for plane warts. J Am Acad Dermatol. Recalcitrant warts and topical cidofovir: predictive factors of good response.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. Successful treatment of periungual warts with topical cidofovir. Dermatol Ther.
Warts: Diagnosis and treatment
J Heart Lung Transplant. Topical cidofovir for plantar warts. Topical cidofovir for refractory verrucae in children. Pediat Dermatol. Intralesional immunotherapy of warts with mumps, Candida, and Trichophyton skin test antigens: a single-blinded, randomized, and controlled trial. Histologic, pharmacologic, and immunocytochemical effects of injection of bleomycin into viral warts. A new method of intralesional bleomycin therapy in the treatment of recalcitrant warts. Photodynamic therapy using light-emitting diodes for the treatment of viral warts.
J Dermatol. Cimetidine therapy for warts: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Intravenous cidofovir-induced resolution of disfiguring cutaneous human papillomavirus infection. Intravenous cidofovir for resistant cutaneous warts in a patient with psoriasis treated with monoclonal antibodies.
Clin Exp Dermatol. Successful treatment of florid cutaneous warts with intravenous cidofovir in an year-old girl. Failure of intravenous cidofovir for generalized verrucosis in a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency. The efficacy of duct tape vs cryotherapy in the treatment of verruca vulgaris the common wart. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Duct tape for the treatment of common warts in adults: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Ewin DM. Hypnotherapy for warts verruca vulgaris : 41 consecutive cases with 33 cures.
Am J Clin Hypn. Propolis as an alternative treatment for cutaneous warts.
Internat J Dermatol. Garlic cloves for verruca vulgaris. Successful topical treatment of hand warts in a paediatric patient with tea tree oil Melaleuca alternifolia.
Symptoms of warts and verrucas
Complement Ther Clin Pract. Cryotherapy of common viral warts at intervals of 1, 2 and 3 weeks. Modern treatment of warts: cure rates at 3 and 6 months. Risk of acquiring human papillomavirus from the plume produced by the carbon dioxide laser in the treatment of warts.
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Carbon dioxide laser-treatment of resistant verrucae vulgaris: retrospective analysis. J Cutan Med Surg. Rivera A, Tyring SK. Therapy of cutaneous human Papillomavirus infections. The authors and editors of Medscape Reference gratefully acknowledge the contributions of previous author, Margaret H. Rinker, MD, to the development and writing of this article. Log In.
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If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. Log out Cancel. Both types of wart contain black dots within their substance, which represent thrombosed capillaries Figures and Figure A common wart with black dots on the surface. Thrombosed black vessels are trapped in the cylindrical projections. These lesions may appear at any age but commonly occur in children and young adults. Their course is highly variable; most resolve spontaneously in weeks or months, and others may last years or a lifetime.
Allison L. Human papillomavirus HPV infection of the skin or mucous membranes may manifest as common warts i. Genital warts may a sign of sexual abuse. A thorough history and physical examination must be done to confirm.follow site
Common warts - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
Vertical transmission from an infected mother to offspring is a source of anogenital warts in infants. Plantar warts are thickened, often painful yellow plaques on the soles, especially over pressure sites e. More than HPV types have been identified, each with a predilection for certain body sites. Warts on the fingers, hands, and knees are usually caused by HPV type 2 but may be caused by types 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 26 to 29, and Anogenital warts have been associated with HPV types 6 and HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, and 35 have been associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
Cutaneous warts are seen more frequently in HIV-infected men and women. They have been noted to be more extensive and more difficult to treat than warts in the non-immunocompromised patients.
Unusual wart types and reports of epidermodysplasia verruciformis have been reported in HIV-infected individuals. With the introduction of ART, intraoral warts were noted to increase in incidence. ART has not reduced the number or severity of warts and remains of concern to patients. Relapse of warts is especially common. Destructive modes of therapy include liquid nitrogen every 3 weeks, salicylic acid, laser, and excision.
Immunomodulating therapy in the form of imiquimod has had less than promising results on cutaneous warts.
Warts and Plantar Warts
Topical cidofovir has been used but is very expensive to formulate. Cutaneous warts occur more frequently in HIV-infected men and women. They are more extensive and more difficult to treat than warts in immunocompetent patients. Unusual wart types and an epidermodysplasia verruciformis-like syndrome called acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis have been reported in HIV-infected individuals [ , ].
The warts themselves rarely cause symptoms unless they are on the soles of the feet and around the fingernails, where they may cause excruciating pain. Due to the frequent presence of high-risk HPV types, there is a risk of malignant transformation. Unfortunately, the advent of ART has not reduced the number or severity of warts, while the incidence of intraoral warts has actually increased [ ].